Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Lu and C. Integrated power converters suffer from overheating when they operate under extreme conditions.
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To prevent destructive breakdown an over-temperature protection OTP circuit is usually designed along with circuits, which restricts the chip temperature within a threshold level.
From a design standpoint, OTP output should vary within a limit range throughout the whole process corners in order to support the chip's reliability. View on IEEE.Present and past habits exercises pdf
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On-chip protection in precision integrated circuits operating at high voltage and high temperature. Design methodology for over-temperature protection of an LDO voltage regulator by using electro-thermal simulations.
It only takes a minute to sign up. IC data sheets often give some informations about the circuits over-temperature protection. If the power dissipation is low enough, the device will continue to cool and operate normally.
If the power dissipation remains high, the thermal shutdown protection circuitry will again turn off the LDO, protecting it from catastrophic failure. In short: a comparator-with-hysteresis compares a fixed voltage with a temperature-dependent voltage and shuts down the series transistor while it trips. A temperature-dependent voltage source can be as simple as a diode. The challenge for IC designers is to make the temperature-independent voltage source!
The circuit that is used to measure and correct for temperature pf the die is called a bandgap reference cell. These circuits both output a current and when you sum these currents you obtain a reference current that is constant with respect to temperature. There are higher order correction factors that are also used a simple PTAT - CTAT combination will have uncorrected quadratic terms for example but not necessary for understanding here.
Now that you have signals that give you temperature states and temperature independent states you can easily see that this you can implement lots of different controls. In many cases, the temperature is sensed by an element which is on the die near to, but separate from, the power-contorl element or other portions of the device which produce heat. There are a number of techniques for sensing approximate temperature without having to do anything terribly exotic; when the circuit senses that the die has gotten too hot, it sill simply turn off the "enable" signals that feed the power-control elements of the device.
Such designs can provide an inexpensive means of protecting circuitry against sustained conditions of mild but not outrageous overload. In many cases, they may be able to protect against even severe overload conditions, if the maximum power dissipation which can be produced in the device given the maximum operating voltage is sufficiently low that the over-temperature sensor will trip before the power-control elements are destroyed.
It's important to note, however, that not all devices guarantee such behavior. I have seen a motor-control IC which IIRC was designed to switch an amp, and which would shut down nicely if it tried to drive a dead short while powered by a volt amp supply, but which would light up like a flare if it tried to drive a dead short while powered by a volt amp supply.
In the former case, the supply itself could only supply enough power to heat the switching element somewhat slowly, so the overtemperature circuit would kick in before the switching element was damaged.
In the latter case, the switching element dissipated so much power so quickly that it melted before the nearby temperature-sensing element could detect the condition and shut it down. Once that happened, the temperature-sensing circuit couldn't do anything to stop the thermal runaway, which ended up producing enough heat to fuse the power and ground planes in the PCB under the chip. I don't know what fraction of power-control ICs are vulnerable to such behaviors, but ensuring that there's a limit to how much power can feed such chips may not be a bad idea.
A fuse could do triple duty, both by adding a little resistance to reduce the worst-case amount of power the chip could dissipate, by perhaps interrupting power fast enough to prevent the chip from being damaged even if its own circuitry would not be fast enough to protect it, and in worst cast by stopping a thermal runaway condition before the chip can get hot enough to damage the PCB or other components outside it. Sign up to join this community. The best answers are voted up and rise to the top.
Ask Question. Asked 7 years, 9 months ago. Active 7 years, 9 months ago. Viewed 3k times. Especially the hysteresis behavior. Improve this question. There are most likely several ways to achieve this, so if someone can give some insights on how this is done for a specific chip thats fine.
Add a comment. Active Oldest Votes. A fixed-voltage source is fundamental part of any voltage regulator. Improve this answer. Wouter van Ooijen Wouter van Ooijen Over temperature protection in a power supply is a protection system that shuts down the power supply when the internal temperature exceeded a safe value. A circuit is used to monitor and generate a trigger signal that starts the shutdown process at the high temperatures. High temperatures may be developed within the supply due to various factors such as faulty components, overloading, over voltage at the supply, malfunctioning cooling system, blocked ventilation or other factors that stresses the components.
Continuous high temperatures are undesirable and can lead to malfunctioning or more damage to the supply, connected circuits or downstream equipment. The over temperature protection OTP therefore ensures that the supply operates within the safe design temperature and shuts the supply down whenever this is exceeded.
Thermal protection is achieved through focusing on the PCB, enclosure and heat sink design. Increased over temperature protection prolongs the lifespan of the power supply components resulting to improved efficiency and reliability. The protection is implemented in various ways determined by factors such as amount space, noise requirements, regulators and other standards conformity.
Essentially, a temperature sensor such as an NTC or PTC thermistor, integrated circuits, on-chip diodes or diodes are used to protect the devices in an LED applications or even a power supply units from overheating. The sensor monitors the temperature of the hottest item on the board. Once the internal temperatures exceeds the preset limit, the OTP shuts down the power supply hence preventing further increase in temperature and possible damage.
In a typical OTP system, a pair of thermistors is usually attached to the heat sink. One of the thermistor is connected to the fan control circuit and is used to automatically adjust the fan speed based on the temperature of the heat sink. The other thermistor is connected to the over temperature protection circuit and will trigger the shut down process if the temperature exceeds the safe value.
Figure 1: Power supply with two thermistors on heat sink red arrows Image: hardwaresecrets. A typical power supply protection system using a monitoring and control IC is as shown in figure 2 below with one end of the thermistor connected to the IC. When high temperatures are experienced, the resistance of the NTC thermistor decreases and more current will flow.
This will cause more voltage across the RT resistor. This is sensed by the monitoring IC which initiates a shut down process when the preset limit is exceeded. The negative temperature coefficient NTC thermistors are the most commonly used in the temperature sensing and controlling the protection method in place.
The response time, accuracy and thermal gradient is determined by the way the thermistor is mounted. Click Here for our Current Statement Dismiss. What is over temperature protection? Figure 1: Power supply with two thermistors on heat sink red arrows Image: hardwaresecrets A typical power supply protection system using a monitoring and control IC is as shown in figure 2 below with one end of the thermistor connected to the IC.
Figure 2: Typical over temperature protection circuit using NTC thermistor Image: hardwaresecrets The negative temperature coefficient NTC thermistors are the most commonly used in the temperature sensing and controlling the protection method in place.Then check out our guide to getting a perfect ACT Science score, written entirely by an ACT expert and full scorer.
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Over Temperature Protection Circuits for Integrated Power Converters
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